How the hard-man mask can affect a prisoner’s sense of self

Arthur Defenbaugh, inmate #27463 photographed in 1924. Courtesy Missouri State Archives

They marched down the corridor with over-developed muscles, projecting authority and machismo, hollering to their friends and acquaintances, displaying a front of the ‘hard man’ as they headed to their classrooms. However, when they entered, their demeanours changed dramatically. Their swagger would disappear as they took their seats, and looked at me with apprehension, uncertain of what was about to happen.